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Stroke
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    *  Home
    * Knowing the Risk
    * Atrial Fibrillation and Cardioembolic Stroke

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Atrial Fibrillation and Cardioembolic Stroke
Atrial fibrillation and the need for antithrombotic therapy
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia seen in clinical practice, affecting an estimated 4.5 million people in the European Union and 2.2 million Americans.22 Atrial fibrillation is associated with a major risk of stroke, caused by a thrombus that forms within the left atrium and embolises to block a cerebral artery. The degree of stroke risk and the need for anticoagulant therapy to lower this risk varies among patients with AF.
AF — the most common arrhythmia
AF, the most common type of sustained cardiac arrhythmia, is primarily a problem of the elderly. The prevalence is less than 1% in those under 60 and almost 10% in those over 80.79

AF is often classified based on the temporal pattern of presentation4:

    * Recurrent AF: two or more episodes of AF
    * Paroxysmal AF: episodes end spontaneously within seven days
    * Persistent AF: pharmacologic or electrical cardioversion is required to terminate the arrhythmia
    * Permanent AF: sustained AF despite treatment to end the arrhythmia or when cardioversion is inappropriate

AF — rhythm control vs rate control
The objectives of treating AF are to relieve symptoms (when present) and to optimise cardiac function. This can be accomplished with either a rhythm-control or a rate-control approach. Rhythm control involves efforts — electrical cardioversion or drug therapy, or both — to restore and maintain normal sinus rhythm. In addition, interventional approaches designed to ablate the source of the abnormal rhythm — known as catheter ablation procedures — have proven successful in some patients with paroxysmal AF.4 Rate control involves using medications to maintain a ventricular rate under 100 beats per minute without attempting to terminate the arrhythmia.4 Generally, studies have shown that there is no survival advantage with rhythm control as opposed to rate control.80

 
AF — the role of antithrombotic therapy
Regardless of which treatment approach is pursued, antithrombotic therapy is essential. This is because cardioembolic stroke is one of the main complications of AF.4 Cardioembolic stroke (or thromboembolic stroke) occurs when stagnant blood in the fibrillating atrium forms a thrombus that then embolises to the cerebral circulation, blocking arterial blood flow and causing ischaemic injury. The incidence of stroke in patients with nonvalvular AF (ie, AF not caused by damage to the mitral valve) is between two- and seven-fold greater than in the general population. For patients with AF caused by valvular disease, the risk of stroke increases 17-fold.22
Gross pathology: thrombus in right atrial appendage Thrombus in right atrial appendage
AF — the risk of stroke
The risk of stroke is age-dependent. In the Framingham study, the annual risk was 1.5% in those 50 to 59 years old and 23.5% in those 80 to 89 years old.22 A systematic review of six cohorts of AF patients identified three other independent risk factors in addition to age: prior history of stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA), history of hypertension, and diabetes.81

Several scoring systems are available to help clinicians estimate the stroke risk in AF. One popular, well-validated risk assessment tool is the "CHADS2". This system assigns single points for congestive heart failure, hypertension, age over 75, and diabetes and two points for stroke or TIA history. A total score over 3 is considered high-risk.4, 82

01-19-2009 09:45

BEIJING, Jan. 19 (Xinhuanet) -- A British biotechnology company is to launch a pioneering trial to determine whether stem cell therapy can be used to help stroke patients.


ReNeuron Group Plc said on Sunday the UK Medicines and Healthcare Products Agency has given the company its approval for trials using fetal stem cells in Britain.


BEIJING, Nov. 20 (Xinhua) -- Medical experts here on Thursday urged the public to pay more attention to the prevention of recurrent stroke on China's second "Stroke Education Day."

"There is an extremely high risk of recurrence for stroke sufferers," said Dong Qiang, an expert from the neurology branch of the Chinese Medical Association (CMA), "and the recurrent stroke causes higher death and disability rates."

The recurrence rate for stroke sufferers is about 10 percent within one week and 20 percent within three months, and atherothrombosis (blood accumulation leading to clotting) is often the "culprit" in recurrent strokes, according to Dong.

"Stroke sufferers need to get rid of their unhealthy habits, including drinking and smoking," said Li Yansheng, a specialist from Shanghai-based Renji Hospital. "They should keep taking anti-platelet medication, such as aspirin and clopidogrel."

Stroke, an aging disease and the third killer worldwide, has become a major public health threat in China. More than 2.5 million new cases of stroke are diagnosed annually in China, and one patient dies every 21 seconds. Three-fourths of survivors lose their ability to work.

 
 
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